Er moralur genetiskur?

Ása JohannesenEg rokni við, at nógv av tykkum hava hoyrt hvat eg ætli mær at siga fyrr, ella um ikki annað gjørt tykkara egnu tankar um evni. So tit kunnu lesa hetta sum eina samanfatan av tí vit vanliga hoyra um menning og moral og so mína egnu meining, sum er grundað á tað eg veit um menning og náttúrliga úrveljing.

Vit kunnu byrja við pástandinum at menniskju eru sjálvsøkin tí at okkara genir eru tað. Hesin pástandur kemur helst einamest frá misskiljingum av “The Selfish Gene” hjá Richard Dawkins. Bókina læs eg sjálv tá eg gekk á fyrsta ári á universiteti og noyddist at finna okkurt, sum gav eina greiða frágreiðing av hvussu menning fer fram uttan at blanda ov nógv tekniskt mál uppí. Hetta noyddist eg at gera, tí mín undirvísing í lívfrøði í Føroyum hevði verið so mikið vánalig, at eg ongantíð hevði lært um menningarlæruna. Eg skal kanska eisini siga, at eg grundi mína vitan um menning á fleiri bøkur enn júst hasa hjá Dawkins. Hetta var bara tann fyrsta eg læs um evnið.

Náh, men sjálvsøkna menniskjan. Í “The Selfish Gene” verður skrivað nógv um ílegur og hvussu tær eru sjálvsøknar. Hvussu tær vilja yvirliva og hvussu tær brúka djórakroppar sum maskinur, sum skulu hjálpa teimum at yvirliva. Trupulleikin uppstendur tá vit koma til moral. Hetta er tí, at hesar djóramaskinurnar burdu uppført seg fullkomiliga sjálvsøkið vegna ílegurnar tær bera í sær. Hetta er tíverri ein øgiliga simplistiskur (og skeivur) máti at síggja tingini uppá. Tað undrar meg altíð, at fólk, sum hava lisið “The Selfish Gene” koma til niðurstøðuna, at vit mugu vera sjálvsøkin, tí okkara ílegur siga tað. Tað virkar, sum tey bara hava lisið fyrru hálvu av bókini, ella kanska minni enn tað. Nú er tað nokkso langt síðani at eg læs bókina, men eg veit at tað var har eg lærdi um “Game theory” fyri fyrstu ferð, og júst hetta er ein stórur partur av hvussu tað kann bera til, at maskinur, ið bera sjálvsøknar ílegur, kunnu vera ósjálvsøknar.

Her kemur ein frágreiðing av hvussu eg skilji evnið: Ílegur eru ikki veruliga sjálvsøknar (hetta er bara myndatala, fyri at gera tað heila eitt sindur lættari at skilja). Ílegur bara eru. Ílegur duga at kopiera seg, og tær ílegurnar, sum duga best at kopiera seg, eru tær, sum flest eru av. Hetta er grundtankin, og øll menning byggir á hetta. Tað vil siga, at alt, sum eitt djór ger, sum ger at ílegurnar í tí kopiera seg meira enn tær í hinum djórunum, førir til, at har eru fleiri av tí djórinum. Tey djórini, sum ikki føra til meiri kopiering hvørva so líðandi.

Her kemur so stóri munurin. Fyri nógvar ílegur er tað galdandi at teirra maskinudjór best kann loyva teimum at kopiera seg við at vera ósjálvsøkið. Hetta er serliga galdandi millum menniskju, har sjálvsøkin atferð hevur tað úrslit, at ongin maki tímir at hjálpa tær, at kopiera tínar ílegur niður í eina aðra maskinu. Hugsa um tað: Hvør fær flest avkom? Egoisturin, sum øll hata, ella fitti persónurin, sum øll elska? Tað er ikki eingongd tí at tað er neyðugt at vera so ræðuliga ósjálvsøkin, fyri at klára seg. Mann skal bara ikki vera fullkomiliga óúthaldiligur. (og har kom ein onnur Darwin misskiljing: Tað er ikki “Survival of the fittest” men “survival of the fit enough”). Afturat tí, at finna onkran at gera eitt barn saman við, kemur eisini yvirliving. Fólk, sum uppføra seg sjálvsøkið, ella bara á ein hátt, ið samfelagið ikki góðtekur, verða útihýst. Vera antin blakað í geglið, avrættað ella á annan hátt avvíst av samfelagnum. Av tí, at menniskju í ein stóran mun hava tørv á samfelagnum fyri at yvirliva, so er tað soleiðis, at menniskju, sum best passa inn í samfelagið eisini eru í meiriluta (og ávirka harvið samfelagið. Har er ein ringrás har). Tað er ikki ein spurningur um at menniskju noyðast at passa inn í samfelagið, men heldur at menniskju, sum passa inn í samfelagið hava størri møguleika fyri at yvirliva og fáa børn, og tí eru fleiri til av teimum.

Eg veit ikki hvussu greitt hetta bleiv. Eg haldi tað er eitt einfalt prinsipp, men eg havi skilt á lagnum, at har eru nógv, ið ikki skilja tað.

Um vit nú lata sum um, at eg havi greitt nóg væl frá tí, so kanska tað ber til at síggja hví “The Selfish Gene” ikki sigur nakað um, at menniskju eru sjálvsøkin orsaka av sínum ílegum. Menniskju eru soleiðis, sum samfelagið hevur gjørt tey. Tað vil siga. Reint genetiskt eru menniskju so, sum loyvir flest kopium, so tey eru sosial, klók, musikalsk og so framvegis. Harafturat hava menniskju (og ein rúgva av øðrum djórum) evnini til at tilpassa seg ymiskar umstøður, sum loyva teimum at læra restina av eginleikunum, sum skulu til fyri at skapa so nógv kopiir sum gjørligt. Allir hesir eginleikar eru ein balansa av sosialari atferð (vinarligheit, hjálpa teimum í neyð, stuðla hvørjum øðrum. Ymiskt, ið kann kallast ósjálvsøkni.) og individuellari atferð (tjena nógvar pengar, fara á besta skúlan at lesa, osfr. Ymiskt, ið kann kallast sjálvsøkni.). Tað vil siga, at menniskju noyðast ikki at “berjast ímóti” sínum sjálvsøknu ílegum. Vit eru, sum vit eru heilt av okkum sjálvum, tí okkara samfelag og ílegur hava gjørt at júst vit blivu til. Um samfelagið var øðrvísi, so høvdu vit ikki blivið til, men heldur onnur menniskju, sum høvdu ílegur, sum passaðu betri til tað samfelagið. Skal tó líka siga, at sum altíð við menning, so eru munirnir smáir og menniskjað við allar best egnaðu ílegunum doyr kanska í einum ferðsluóhappi, so hetta er ein spurningur um fleirtal av ílegum í nógvum ymiskum menniskjum yvir langa tíð og ikki ávísum einstaklingum í einum ættarliðið.

Viðmerkingar, serliga frá fólki við skili fyri evninum eru vælkomnar. Eg havi ringt við at formulera hetta, so um onkur dugur at siga tað meira elegant, so hevði tað verið frálíkt.

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Hetta var lagt út 2 oktober, 2011 klokkan 20:37 og er goymt undir bloggupostar. Tú kanst halda eygað við svarum umvegis RSS 2.0 feed. Tú kanst svara, ella trackbacka frá tíni egnu síðu.

40 svar to “Er moralur genetiskur?”

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