Spurningar

Stundum spurdir spurningar

um ateismu


Hvat er ateisma?

Orðið ateisma kemur av griksku orðunum “a” og “teos”, ið merkja “uttan gud” ella “gudleys/gudleysur.” Ein ateistur er tískil ein persónur við vantandi gudstrúgv. Vit hava øll verið ateistar eineferð, áðrenn vit vórðu uppald í einum serstøkum átrúnaði.

Er ateisma ikki ein átrúnaður?

Nei, ein átrúnaður er ein sannførd trúðarjáttan. Ateisma er hvørki ein átrúnaður, ein játtandi sannføring ella ein religión. Ateisma er, sum sagt, bert ein tilvera við vantandi trúgv á nakran ávísan guddóm. Hetta kann tískil samanberast við, at ein ikki er sannførdur um, at aðrir mýtiskir skapningar eru til – sum til dømis einhyrningar, drekar, huldufólk ella jólamenn. Ongin hevði kallað vantandi trúgv upp á hesi fyri ein átrúnað.

Mín Guð er ongin dreki ella jólamaður!

Nei, tað er hann ikki, hóast ávísar líkheitir (bæði jólamaðurin og Guð vita, hvussu væl tú skikkar tær). Ætlanin við hesi samanbering var als ikki at gera gjøldur burturúr nøkrum – men at vísa á munin millum vantandi trúgv og átrúnað. Tað er lættast at lýsa hetta við onkrum, sum vit kunnu semjast um. Flest øll eru samd um, at jólamaðurin ikki er til, men hetta fær ikki nakran at pástanda, at vit hava ein átrúnað um jólamannaloysi. Um tú vilt, kunnu vit fegin siga, at viðvíkjandi eginleikum er tín Guð eitt unikum samanborið við onnur fyribrigdi, sum vit gudloysingar heldur ikki trúgva uppá.

At pástanda, at Guð ikki er til, krevur alvitan!

Hetta er ikki neyðturviliga so. Tað er satt, at tað ikki ber til at vita við vissu, at ongir gudar eru til. Vit kunnu heldur ikki vita við vissu, at áðurnevndu mýtisku skapningar ikki eru til. Ateistar flest síggja bert onga orsøk til at ganga út frá, at nakar gudur er til, tí ongi prógv eru fyri pástandinum. Hetta merkir ikki, at teir eru avgjørt sannførdir um, at ongir gudar eru,   – bert at, sum nú er, er ongin grund til at halda tað. Hetta kallast veik ateisma.

Summir ateistar taka stigið víðari og avnokta guddómar fullkomiliga, tí teir halda hesar vera logiskt ósamanhangandi. Hetta kann berast saman við, at ein kann vita við vissu, at ongir giftir piparsveinar eru til – eisini hóast ein ikki er alvitandi. At pástanda, at ein ella fleiri gudar ikki eru til, (heldur enn bert at vanta trúgv uppá teir) kallast sterk ateisma.    Uppaftur aðrir ateistar hava ein veikt ateistiskan hugburð til guds-hugtakið sum heild, men ein sterkt ateistiskan hugburð til serstakar væl-defineraðar gudar – t.d. kristna gudin Yahve ella islamska gudin Allah.

Einasti mátin at fáa at vita, hvat slag av ateisti talan er um, er at spyrja viðkomandi.

Er veik ateisma ikki tað sama sum agnostisisma?

Nei. “Eg eri ateist” og “eg eri agnosti” eru svar upp á tveir heilt ymiskar spurningar. Ateisma er ein frávera av gudstrúgv.

Agnostisisma er ein hugburður um at ógjørligt er at vita um gudar eru til ella ikki. Orðið agnostisisma kemur av griksku orðunum “a” og “gnosis,” ið merkja “uttan vitan” ella “óvitandi.”

Nógvir ateistar eru ateistar orsakað av einum agnostiskum hugburði – teir hava onga trúgv, tí teir halda, at tað er ikki gjørligt at vita, um nakar gudur er til ella ikki. Hetta samsvarar aloftast við veika ateismu, men tað ber eisini til, at vera sterkt ateistiskt agnosti ella fyri so vítt agnostiskt teistiskur (hóast hetta seinna er sjáldsamt, av tí at teistar flest siga seg vita, at Gud er til.)

Eisini eru ymiskir mátar at vera agnosti uppá. Tveir av vanligastu mátanum eru:

Veik agnostisisma – har sagt verður, at sum er ber ikki til at vita,  at gudar eru til ella at gudar ikki er til, men einaferð í framtíðini fara vit kanska at vita tað.

Sterk agnostisisma – sigur hinvegin, at av logiskum ávum fer ongantíð at bera til at vita, um gudar eru til ella ei. (samanber eftir tørvi við sterka ateismu.)

Kunnu ateistar kanska prógva, at Guð ikki er til?

Nei, hvussu skal nakar kunna tað? Hetta sum biðið verður um, er ein logisk villininiðurstøða, ið kallast noktandi prógv. Kendi heimspekingurin og ateisturin, Bertrand Russell, samanbar hetta við, at tað ikki ber til at prógva, at har ikki sveimar ein tekanna í ringrás um sólina onkrastaðni úti í rúmdini. Somuleiðis segði ateistiski stjørnufrøðingurin, Carl Sagan, at hetta svarar til, at ongin kann prógva, at hann ikki hevur ein ósjónligan dreka í síni garasju. Men tað hevði verið løgið, um hesir báðir kravdu, at onnur skuldu góðtaka teirra pástandir um tekannur og drekar, bert tí tað ikki ber til at mótprógva hesar pástandir.

Tað er einki annað enn rímiligt, at tað er upp til Russell og Sagan at prógva tað, teir pástanda. og ikki upp til øll onnur at mótprógva tað. Hetta er tað, sum heimspekingar (og vísindamenn) kalla próvbyrða. Próvbyrðan liggur altíð hjá teimum, ið seta fram pástandin. Netupp tí, at um vit skuldu góðtikið alt, sum ikki kann mótprógvast, so skuldu vit ikki bert góðtikið Guð, men eisini tekannur, drekar, einhyrningar, huldufólk o.s.fr.

Men hvat nú, um tit taka feil?

Ja, um vit taka feil, og júst tín gudur veruliga er til, so er ikki lukkuligt fyri okkum. Hetta kallast vanliga vedding Pascals. Tað var franski heimspekingurin, blaise Pascal, sum í 17. øld festi hetta hugtak á blað á fyrsta sinni. Í stuttum gongur vedding Pascals út uppá, at tað er betri at trúgva á Guð og taka feil enn ikki at trúgva á Guð og taka feil. Tí trýr ein á Guð, og tað vísir seg, at Guð ikki er til, so er onki mist. Men trýr ein ikki á Guð, og Guð er til, so hevur ein mist alt. Tískil er tað, sambært Pascal, betri at trúgva á Guð, uttan mun til um hesin veruliga er til ella ikki.

Fleiri trupulleikar eru tó við hesum. Veddingin, sum hon er sett fram av Pascal, er bæði ein logisk villininiðurstøða, kallað lastaður spurningur og ein sonevnd følsk tvístøða. Hetta kann samanberast við at spyrja ein mann:

“Ert tú givin at banka konu tína ella ikki?”

Spurningurin er lastaður tí at tú frammanundan gongur út frá, at maðurin veruliga hevur bankað konuna. Samstundis verður ein følsk tvístøða við bert tveimum valmøguleikum sett upp. Flest øll duga tó at síggja, at har burdi verið ein triði valmøguleiki – nevniliga at maðurin als ikki hevur sligið konuna.

Somuleiðis er vedding Pascals lastað av, at hon tekur støði í eini gókenning av, at Guð – um hann er til – fer at revsa ateistar og løna teistum onkursvegna. Thomas Jefferson, triði forseti Ameriku, lýsti hetta við orðunum:

Tj3“Set við dirvi ivamál við sjálvt tilveru Guðs; tí er hann til, man hann samtykkja fagnaðin av viti og skili í størri mun enn fagnaðin av blindari ræðslu.”

Vit hava sjálvandi onga grund til at halda, at um ein gudur er til, so er tað Guð, sum hann er lýstur av Jefferson. Hinvegin er heldur ongin orsøk at halda, at hon er kristni gudur Pascals. Her kemur falska tvístøðan aftur. Pascal loyvir okkum bert at velja ímillum ongan gud og Yahve Kristindómsins, hóast tað er hvørki meir ella minni sannlíkt, at gudurin er Allah, Krishna, Vishnu, Zeus ella Óðin. Møguleikarnir eru heldur ikki avmarkaðir til ein serstakan gud – tað ber væl til at ímynda sær, at nógvir gudar eru til.

Tískil er trúgv á Guð als ikki ein so trygg vedding, sum Pascal vil vera við. Tað er eisini neyðugt at velja júst tann rætta gudin av øllum heimsins túsundtals gudum.

Haravtrat er eisini sera ivasamt um Guði hevði dámt eina húklariska vedding um at hann er til, út frá hvat lønar seg best fyri veddaran, heldur enn ektaða trúgv, ið ikki kann veljast.

Velja ateistar ikki sjálvir at vera ateistar?

Hetta er ein ógvuliga torførur spurningur. Velja teistar at trúgva upp á Guð? Hevði tað borið til at valt at latið vera? Summir ateistar hava aldrin verið trúgvandi. Aðrir hava verið tað einaferð, men eru komnir til ta niðurstøðu, at pástandirnir um Guð ikki vóru nóg sannførandi. Í ávísan mun ber allarhelst til at velja um tú vilt seta spurnartekin við ymiskar pástandir og hvussu gjølla, tú vilt kanna teir. Tað er tó torført at ímynda sær, at tá tú einaferð hevur vunnið tær nóg mikið av vitan í einum ivamáli, at tú so kanst fara og velja eina og hvørja møguliga niðurstøðu, sama um hendan samsvarar við tína vitan ella ei.

Flestu ateistar kunnu simpult hen bara ikki fáa Guð at passa inn í teirra heimsmynd, so leingi ongin ábending er fyri, at slíkt er til.

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